Understanding Embodied Energy in Building Materials

In the world of construction, sustainability is more than just a buzzword; it’s a critical consideration for the future. One essential aspect of this sustainability is embodied energy, a parameter that assesses the entire life cycle of building materials and their environmental impact. In this blog post, we’ll dive deep into what embodied energy is, the different types of embodied energy, and why it matters in the construction industry.

What is Embodied Energy?

Embodied energy is the total non-renewable energy or primary energy (carbon released) used throughout a building material’s entire life cycle. This life cycle includes various stages, such as extraction, manufacturing, construction, maintenance, and disposal. In essence, it represents the sum of greenhouse gas emissions attributed to the material during its life cycle.

Types of Embodied Energy

Embodied energy is divided into three main types:

1. Initial Embodied Energy

Initial embodied energy refers to the non-renewable energy consumed during the procurement of raw materials, processing, manufacturing, transportation, and construction. For example, consider a steel window – it possesses initial embodied energy derived from mining the ore, production, transportation, manufacturing, and delivery to the building site. This type of embodied energy is influenced by factors like the source, type, and nature of the building material.

2. Recurring Embodied Energy

Recurring embodied energy accounts for the non-renewable energy consumed for maintenance, repair, restoration, refurbishment, or replacement of materials, components, or systems during a building’s lifecycle. Its magnitude depends on the durability and maintenance of building materials, systems, and components, as well as the lifespan of the building.

3. Operational Energy

Operational energy is the recurring energy consumed in buildings for heating, cooling, ventilation, and lighting. This energy can be obtained either through passive or active energy systems. Interestingly, as a building ages, the emphasis shifts from initial embodied energy to operational energy, making it crucial to adopt sustainable practices from the outset.

Significance of Initial Embodied Energy

In the construction industry, initial embodied energy takes center stage. For instance, consider concrete, one of the most abundant human-made materials globally. The production of cement, a key component of concrete, contributes to approximately 7% of the world’s CO2 emissions and stands as the largest contributor to embodied carbon in the built environment. Embodied carbon is expected to account for nearly 50% of the overall carbon footprint of new construction by 2050, highlighting its profound environmental implications, including resource depletion, greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental degradation.

Initial embodied energy is typically expressed in units of Mega Joules (MJ) or Giga Joules (GJ) per unit of weight or area. Calculating embodied energy is a complex process, influenced by factors such as the geographical location of manufacturing technology and production methods.

Boundary Conditions of Embodied Energy

Embodied energy can be evaluated under different boundary conditions, as per the Inventory of Carbon and Energy (ICE) from the University of Bath:

  • Cradle-to-Gate: This boundary condition encompasses the energy from material extraction to the manufacturing gate.
  • Cradle-to-Site: It considers energy from material extraction to the building site.
  • Cradle-to-Grave: This boundary condition accounts for energy from material extraction to end-of-life.

While Cradle-to-Gate is often used for general data on building materials, detailed analysis may require Cradle-to-Site boundary conditions for a more accurate assessment.

The Objective of Studying Embodied Energy

The reduction of carbon emissions from buildings should be a top priority for civil engineers and architects. Understanding and measuring embodied energy or carbon in building materials is essential for creating more environmentally conscious projects. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a valuable tool for identifying the most environmentally impactful stages in a building’s life cycle. It may involve comparing different materials with similar functions, such as steel, timber, or concrete frame structures.

Ultimately, comprehending the embodied energy of materials used in architecture and construction allows for sustainable decisions driven by environmental consciousness rather than mere fashion or profit.

To provide a practical perspective, let’s consider some data from the Inventory of Carbon and Energy (ICE) prepared by the University of Bath (UK):

MaterialEnergy (MJ/kg)Carbon (kg CO2/kg)Material Density (kg/m³)
Concrete (1:1.5:3)1.110.1592400
Bricks (common)30.241700
Steel (general, av. recycled content)20.11.377800

Note: This table provides a glimpse of the embodied energy and carbon data for selected materials.


Embodied energy is a crucial consideration in the construction industry’s journey toward sustainability. It encompasses the energy and carbon emissions associated with building materials throughout their life cycle. As we strive for greener and more eco-conscious projects, understanding the types of embodied energy, boundary conditions, and the significance of initial embodied energy is essential. By making informed choices and prioritizing low-impact materials, we can reduce the environmental footprint of the built environment and pave the way for a more sustainable future in construction.

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